The January 2006 issue of the Journal of General Internal Medicine contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Re-Forming Relationships in Health Care: Creating A National Research Agenda for Relationship-Centered Care. Here are the issues abstracts; free full text is available.
From September 29 to October 1, 2004, the Regenstrief Institute, a free-standing research institute of Indiana University School of Medicine, held its ninth bi-annual conference on health care research. The conference, entitled, Re-Forming Relationships in Health Care: Creating A National Research Agenda for Relationship-Centered Care, was attended by almost 100 invited participants and presenters who gathered to hear and discuss current concepts and research in relationship-centered care (RCC) and to help shape an agenda for research in this arena.
Frankel RM, Inui TS. Re-forming relationships in health care. Papers from the ninth biennual Regenstrief Conference. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S1-S2.
Haidet P, Stein HF. The role of the student-teacher relationship in the formation of physicians. The hidden curriculum as process. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S16-S20.
Abstract: Relationship-Centered Care acknowledges the central importance of relationships in medical care. In a similar fashion, relationships hold a central position in medical education, and are critical for achieving favorable learning outcomes. However, there is little empirical work in the medical literature that explores the development and meaning of relationships in medical education. In this essay, we explore the growing body of work on the culture of medical school, often termed the “hidden curriculum.” We suggest that relationships are a critical mediating factor in the hidden curriculum. We explore evidence from the educational literature with respect to the student-teacher relationship, and the relevance that these studies hold for medical education. We conclude with suggestions for future research on student-teacher relationships in medical education settings.
Cooper LA, Beach MC, Johnson RL, Inui TS. Delving below the surface. Understanding how race and ethnicity influence relationships in health care. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S21-S27.
Abstract: There is increasing evidence that racial and ethnic minority patients receive lower quality interpersonal care than white patients. Therapeutic relationships constitute the interpersonal milieu in which patients are diagnosed, given treatment recommendations, and referred for tests, procedures, or care by consultants in the health care system. This paper provides a review and perspective on the literature that explores the role of relationships and social interactions across racial and ethnic differences in health care. First, we examine the social and historical context for examining differences in interpersonal treatment in health care along racial and ethnic lines. Second, we discuss selected studies that examine how race and ethnicity influence clinician-patient relationships. While less is known about how race and ethnicity influence clinician-community, clinician-clinician, and clinician-self relationships, we briefly examine the potential roles of these relationships in overcoming disparities in health care. Finally, we suggest directions for future research on racial and ethnic health care disparities that uses a relationship-centered paradigm.
Roter DL, Frankel RM, Hall JA, Sluyter D. The expression of emotion through nonverbal behavior in medical visits. Mechanisms and outcomes. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S28-S34.
Abstract: Relationship-centered care reflects both knowing and feeling: the knowledge that physician and patient bring from their respective domains of expertise, and the physician’s and patient’s experience, expression, and perception of emotions during the medical encounter. These processes are conveyed and reciprocated in the care process through verbal and nonverbal communication. We suggest that the emotional context of care is especially related to nonverbal communication and that emotion-related communication skills, including sending and receiving nonverbal messages and emotional self-awareness, are critical elements of high-quality care. Although nonverbal behavior has received far less study than other care processes, the current review argues that it holds significance for the therapeutic relationship and influences important outcomes including satisfaction, adherence, and clinical outcomes of care.
Beach MC, Inui T. Relationship-centered care. A constructive reframing. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S3-S8.
Abstract: All illness, care, and healing processes occur in relationship–relationships of an individual with self and with others. Relationship-centered care (RCC) is an important framework for conceptualizing health care, recognizing that the nature and the quality of relationships are central to health care and the broader health care delivery system. RCC can be defined as care in which all participants appreciate the importance of their relationships with one another. RCC is founded upon 4 principles: (1) that relationships in health care ought to include the personhood of the participants, (2) that affect and emotion are important components of these relationships, (3) that all health care relationships occur in the context of reciprocal influence, and (4) that the formation and maintenance of genuine relationships in health care is morally valuable. In RCC, relationships between patients and clinicians remain central, although the relationships of clinicians with themselves, with each other and with community are also emphasized.
Weiner M, Biondich P. The influence of information technology on patient-physician relationships. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S35-S39.
Abstract: Interpersonal relationships and information are intertwined as essential cornerstones of health care. Although information technology (IT) has done much to advance medicine, we are not even close to realizing its full potential. Indeed, issues related to mismanaging health information often undermine relationship-centered care. Information technology must be implemented in ways that preserve and uplift relationships in care, while accommodating major deficiencies in managing information and making medical decisions. Increased collaboration between experts in IT and relationship-centered care is needed, along with inclusion of relationship-based measures in informatics research.
Suchman AL. A new theoretical foundation for relationship-centered care. Complex responsive processes of relating. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S40-S44.
Abstract: Relationship-centered care (RCC) is a clinical philosophy that stresses partnership, careful attention to relational process, shared decision-making, and self-awareness. A new complexity-inspired theory of human interaction called complex responsive processes of relating (CRPR) offers strong theoretical confirmation for the principles and practices of RCC, and thus may be of interest to communications researchers and reflective practitioners. It points out the nonlinear nature of human interaction and accounts for the emergence of self-organizing patterns of meaning (e.g., themes or ideas) and patterns of relating (e.g., power relations). CRPR offers fresh new perspectives on the mind, self, communication, and organizations. For observers of interaction, it focuses attention on the nature of moment-to-moment relational process, the value of difference and diversity, and the importance of authentic and responsive participation, thus closely corresponding to and providing theoretical support for RCC.
Duffy FD. Complexity and healing relationships [editorial]. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S45-S47.
Safran DG, Miller W, Beckman H. Organizational dimensions of relationship-centered care. Theory, evidence, and practice. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21 Suppl 1:S9-S15.
Abstract: Four domains of relationship have been highlighted as the cornerstones of relationship-centered health care. Of these, clinician-patient relationships have been most thoroughly studied, with a rich empirical literature illuminating significant linkages between clinician-patient relationship quality and a wide range of outcomes. This paper explores the realm of clinician-colleague relationships, which we define to include the full array of relationships among clinicians, staff, and administrators in health care organizations. Building on a stream of relevant theories and empirical literature that have emerged over the past decade, we synthesize available evidence on the role of organizational culture and relationships in shaping outcomes, and posit a model of relationship-centered organizations. We conclude that turning attention to relationship-centered theory and practice in health care holds promise for advancing care to a new level, with breakthroughs in quality of care, quality of life for those who provide it, and organizational performance.