Implementation Science: new BioMed Central journal

is.jpg  Here is a new Open Access journal from BioMed Central. From the Web site:

Implementation Science is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal that aims to publish research relevant to the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings into routine healthcare in both clinical and policy contexts. MORE

Here are excerpts from some of the recently published articles. [Updated August 3, 2007] Click on the titles for full text, or on MORE to read the full abstracts.
2008 PubMed Records;  2007 PubMed records;  2006 PubMed records

Staton LJ, Kraemer SM, Patel S, Talente GM, Estrada CA. Peer chart audits: A tool to meet Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Competency in Practice-Based Learning and Improvement. Implement Sci 2007; 2(1):24.

Eccles MP, Steen IN, Whitty PM, Hall L. Is untargeted educational outreach visiting delivered by pharmaceutical advisers effective in primary care? A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Implement Sci 2007; 2(1):23.

Foy R, Hawthorne G, Gibb I, Eccles MP, Steen N, Hrisos S et al. A cluster randomised controlled trial of educational prompts in diabetes care: study protocol. Implement Sci 2007; 2(1):22.

Dobbins M, Rosenbaum P, Plews N, Law M, Fysh A. Information transfer: what do decision makers want and need from researchers? Implement Sci 2007; 2:20.:20.

Eccles MP, Hrisos S, Francis J, Kaner EF, Dickinson HO, Beyer F et al. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians’ behaviour: a systematic review. Implement Sci 2006; 1:28.:28.

BACKGROUND: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice. Several interventions have been shown to be effective in changing health care professionals’ behaviour, but heterogeneity within interventions, targeted behaviours, and study settings make generalisation difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the ‘active ingredients’ in professional behaviour change strategies. Theories of human behaviour that feature an individual’s “intention” to do something as the most immediate predictor of their behaviour have proved to be useful in non-clinical populations. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour such theories may offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of intervention to use in the implementation of new practice. The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between intention and behaviour in clinicians and how this compares to the intention-behaviour relationship in studies of non-clinicians. MORE 

Gravel K, Legare F, Graham ID. Barriers and facilitators to implementing shared decision-making in clinical practice: a systematic review of health professionals’ perceptions. Implement Sci 2006; 1:16.:16.

BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making is advocated because of its potential to improve the quality of the decision-making process for patients and ultimately, patient outcomes. However, current evidence suggests that shared decision-making has not yet been widely adopted by health professionals. Therefore, a systematic review was performed on the barriers and facilitators to implementing shared decision-making in clinical practice as perceived by health professionals. MORE


Hakkennes S, Green S. Measures for assessing practice change in medical practitioners. Implement Sci 2006; 1:29.:29.

BACKGROUND: There are increasing numbers of randomised trials and systematic reviews examining the efficacy of interventions designed to bring about a change in clinical practice. The findings of this research are being used to guide strategies to increase the uptake of evidence into clinical practice. Knowledge of the outcomes measured by these trials is vital not only for the interpretation and application of the work done to date, but also to inform future research in this expanding area of endeavour and to assist in collation of results in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. MORE


MacDermid JC, Solomon P, Law M, Russell D, Stratford P. Defining the effect and mediators of two knowledge translation strategies designed to alter knowledge, intent and clinical utilization of rehabilitation outcome measures: a study protocol. Implement Sci 2006; 1:14.:14.

BACKGROUND: A substantial number of valid outcome measures have been developed to measure health in adult musculoskeletal and childhood disability. Regrettably, national initiatives have merely resulted in changes in attitude, while utilization remains unacceptably low. This study will compare the effectiveness and mediators of two different knowledge transfer (KT) interventions in terms of their impact on changing knowledge and behavior (utilization and clinical reasoning) related to health outcome measures. MORE 

Norman CD, Huerta T. Knowledge transfer & exchange through social networks: building foundations for a community of practice within tobacco control. Implement Sci 2006; 1:20.:20.

BACKGROUND: Health services and population health innovations advance when knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) occurs among researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and consumers using high-quality evidence. However, few KTE models have been evaluated in practice. Communities of practice (CoP) – voluntary, self-organizing, and focused groups of individuals and organizations – may provide one option. This paper outlines an approach to lay the foundation for a CoP within the area of Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI). The objectives of the study were to provide a data-driven foundation to inform decisions about organizing a CoP within the geographically diverse, multi-disciplinary WATI group using evaluation and social network methodologies. MORE


Sladek RM, Phillips PA, Bond MJ. Implementation science: a role for parallel dual processing models of reasoning? Implement Sci 2006; 1:12.:12.

BACKGROUND: A better theoretical base for understanding professional behaviour change is needed to support evidence-based changes in medical practice. Traditionally strategies to encourage changes in clinical practices have been guided empirically, without explicit consideration of underlying theoretical rationales for such strategies. This paper considers a theoretical framework for reasoning from within psychology for identifying individual differences in cognitive processing between doctors that could moderate the decision to incorporate new evidence into their clinical decision-making. MORE 

Solberg LI. Recruiting medical groups for research: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Implement Sci 2006; 1:25.:25.

BACKGROUND: In order to conduct good implementation science research, it will be necessary to recruit and obtain good cooperation and comprehensive information from complete medical practice organizations. The goal of this paper is to report an effective example of such a recruitment effort for a study of the organizational aspects of depression care quality. MORE


Stetler CB, Legro MW, Rycroft-Malone J, Bowman C, Curran G, Guihan M et al. Role of “external facilitation” in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration. Implement Sci 2006; 1:23.:23.

BACKGROUND: Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects.Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. MORE


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